Precursor types include many types of structures ranging from particles to fibres, sheets and 3-D structures. Formation of polymeric precursors prior to carbonization enables preparation of complex structured and shapes. We can use new precursor types or introduce alternative manufacturing routes for the industry. Shapes, precursor types, application fields as well as examples of materials and processes are summarized in Table below.
Table. Precursor type options for carbon demontsrations.
 Laine C et al. (VTT) Novel dispersions and method for the production thereof, WO2008145828
 Jiang G. Structure and properties of regenerated cellulose fibers from different technology processes Carbohyd Polym 87(2012) 2012-8
 Nousiainen P & Vehviläinen M, Biocelsol - Biotechnological process for manufacturing cellulosic products with added value. 48th Dornbirn Man-Made Fibers Congress, Austria 16.-18.9.2009 11 p.
 Valta K, Sivonen E, Method for manufacturing cellulose carbamate US7,662,953 2010; Valta K et al. Method for manufacturing cellulose carbamate solution US8,066,903 2011
 Awal A, Sain M. Characterization of soda hardwood lignin and the formation of lignin fibers by melt spinning J Appl Polym Sci 2013 in press
 Heikkilä P et al. Electrospinning of cellulose acetate and use of such fibres in membranes, The International Istanbul Textile Congress 30.5.-1.6.2013, Istanbul, Turkey
 Heikkilä P et al. Sub-micron and nanosized specialty fibres by electrospinning, Electrospinning, Principles, Possibilities and Practice 2012 London, UK, 21.-22.3.2012; Heikkilä P et al. Water-based Electrospinning of Natural Polymers? 243rd ACS meeting, San Diego, CA, US, 25.-29.3.2012
 Harlin A et al. Foam forming technology for tailored medical applications, MedTex13, 13-15.5.2013, Raleigh, NC, USA
 Hjelt T et al. Intriguing strength and structural behaviour in foam forming,
 Horrocks AR, Anand SC, Handbook of Technical Textiles, CRC press, 2004