Raw materials

Carbon materials have many general properties which makes them attractive in various applications including low density, inert nature, stability in wide temperature range and resistance to most corrosive gases. There are different crystalline structures from amorphous carbon to graphite form and diamonds. Advances in material sciences in last decade enable preparation of various structures, such as fibres and foams, and adjustment of properties, such as electrical and thermal conductivity. Drawbacks in many applications are brittleness and susceptibility to chipping. Possible application fields of biobased-carbons are wide , and requirements concerning e.g. strength or porosity vary widely enabling use of different qualities of raw materials, forms of carbon and carbonization processes. Within wide range of application it is also possible to find certain design which answers needs of more than one end-use.

We review requirements in fields of

1) high performance engineering materials, 2) high efficient separation and 3) applications of applied energy technologies.

  1. High performance engineering materials contain light weight composite applications and tribology applications including low friction surfaces and lubricants.

  2. Separation applications for future process technologies include filters & membranes and electrodes for capacitive desalination.

  3. Energy applications for emerging energy technologies include applications such as gas storage, electrodes for supercapacitors and batteries and catalyst supports.

Table. Summary of application fields, main requirements and state of the art.